Master (Your) Artificial intelligence in 5 Minutes A Day

Master (Your) Artificial intelligence in 5 Minutes A Day

 

Facebook’s New Device Is Aiding Scientist Build AI We Could Have Meaningful Conversations

The conversational AI from Her
A STILL FROM THE FILM HER, INCLUDING A GENUINELY CONVERSATIONAL VOICE-BASED AI
Inning accordance with Facebook, there presently exist 2 primary kinds of conversational AI– those like Siri and also Google Aide that you talk to in order to provide it directions, and also others that offer no objective apart from home entertainment.

As it stands today, electronic aides are sterilized, doing not have an actual individuality besides the jokes tough coded right into them. So Facebook today introduced a brand-new research study device it’s been dealing with, to assist AI designers develop makers be a lot more efficient in holding a lucid, organized discussion with people.

” ParlAI is a system we really hope will certainly unite the area of scientists working with AI representatives that execute dialog and also proceed pressing the modern in dialog research study.”

Called ParlAI (obvious “par-lay”), the social media sites network explains it as a “one-stop buy dialog research study.” Not just does it supply AI programmers and also scientists with a training and also screening structure for their chatbots, it additionally serves as a database for them to share their techniques with various other programmers, speeding up along our study right into useful AI. In addition, the system linkeds into Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk, to supply designers with accessibility to work with people to engage with, examination, and also fix their chatbots, a critical component of the understanding procedure

” Addressing dialog continues to be a lasting obstacle for AI, as well as any kind of progression towards that objective will likely have temporary advantages in regards to items that we could construct today or the growth of innovations that might be valuable in various other locations,” the business stated in a post.

Apple’s Siri and also various other rivals like the Google Aide, Microsoft’s Cortana, as well as Amazon.com’s Alexa have actually been around for some time, enough time for us to obtain made use of to them. As well as though we could utilize them on as well as off, speaking to our smart devices to complete jobs isn’t really silky smooth right now. Facebook wishes to throw down the gauntlet, and also the social titan has a gameplan in position.

ParlAI isn’t really for small-time programmers nonetheless; it’s focused on innovative study in the area. Certainly, a few of that shared expertise will certainly additionally ultimately makes its method right into Facebook’s items in time too.

Exactly what the social media network is trying to assist produce with its brand-new system is an AI efficient in incorporating both. The concept is to create a chatbot that could not just remember your choices gradually, yet additionally utilize them in significant discussions constructively, as opposed to equally as context.

 

Master (Your) Artificial intelligence in 5 Minutes A Day

Forever 21 tells customers that some credit card numbers may have been stolen

 This week, the clothing retailer Forever 21 disclosed to customers that it was hacked earlier in 2017. While the company has not yet offered many details about the intrusion, we know that it is looking into a portion of credit card transactions between March 2017 and October 2017 that were conducted over machines that appear to have been insecure. “Because of the encryption and… Read More

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Former Time Warner CEO and Investment Head Launch New VC Firm

Former Time Warner CEO Richard Parsons and investment head Rachel Lam plan to invest in digital media, machine learning, big data and esports startups.

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    Artificial emotional intelligence

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Marketing email company SendGrid raises $131 million after pricing its IPO at $16

 SendGrid, the Denver-based marketing email company, raised $131 million after pricing its IPO at $16, above the expected range of $13.50 to $15.50. The company also upsized its IPO, selling 8.2 million shares, instead of 7.7 million. The company begins trading Friday on the New York Stock Exchange, under the ticker, “SEND.” SendGrid helps businesses send marketing emails. It says… Read More

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Mapping connections of single neurons using a holographic light beam

Controlling single neurons using optogenetics (credit: the researchers)

Researchers at MIT and Paris Descartes University have developed a technique for precisely mapping connections of individual neurons for the first time by triggering them with holographic laser light.

The technique is based on optogenetics (using light to stimulate or silence light-sensitive genetically modified protein molecules called “opsins” that are embedded in specific neurons). Current optogenetics techniques can’t isolate individual neurons (and their connections) because the light strikes a relatively large area — stimulating axons and dendrites of other neurons simultaneously (and these neurons may have different functions, even when nearby).

The new technique stimulates only the soma (body) of the neuron, not its connections. To achieve that, the researchers combined two new advances: an optimized holographic light-shaping microscope* and a localized, more powerful opsin protein called CoChR.

Two-photon computer-generated holography (CGH) was used to create three-dimensional sculptures of light that envelop only a target cell, using a conventional pulsed laser coupled with a widefield epifluorescence imaging system. (credit: Or A. Shemesh et al./Nature Nanoscience)

The researchers used an opsin protein called CoChR, which generates a very strong electric current in response to light, and fused it to a small protein that directs the opsin into the cell bodies of neurons and away from axons and dendrites, which extend from the neuron body, forming “somatic channelrhodopsin” (soCoChR). This new opsin enabled photostimulation of individual cells (regions of stimulation are highlighted by magenta circles) in mouse cortical brain slices with single-cell resolution and with less than 1 millisecond temporal (time) precision — achieving connectivity mapping on intact cortical circuits without crosstalk between neurons. (credit: Or A. Shemesh et al./Nature Nanoscience)

In the new study, by combining this approach with new ““somatic channelrhodopsin” opsins that cluster in the cell body, the researchers showed they could stimulate individual neurons with not only precise spatial control but also great control over the timing of the stimulation. When they target a specific neuron, it responds consistently every time, with variability that is less than one millisecond, even when the cell is stimulated many times in a row.

“For the first time ever, we can bring the precision of single-cell control toward the natural timescales of neural computation,” says Ed Boyden, an associate professor of brain and cognitive sciences and biological engineering at MIT, and a member of MIT’s Media Lab and McGovern Institute for Brain Research. Boyden is co-senior author with Valentina Emiliani, a research director at France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and director of the Neurophotonics Laboratory at Paris Descartes University, of a study that appears in the Nov. 13 issue of Nature Neuroscience.

Mapping neural connections in real time

Using this technique, the researchers were able to stimulate single neurons in brain slices and then measure the responses from cells that are connected to that cell. This may pave the way for more precise diagramming of the connections of the brain, and analyzing how those connections change in real time as the brain performs a task or learns a new skill.

Optogenetics was co-developed in 2005 by Ed Boyden (credit: MIT)

One possible experiment, Boyden says, would be to stimulate neurons connected to each other to try to figure out if one is controlling the others or if they are all receiving input from a far-off controller.

“It’s an open question,” he says. “Is a given function being driven from afar, or is there a local circuit that governs the dynamics and spells out the exact chain of command within a circuit? If you can catch that chain of command in action and then use this technology to prove that that’s actually a causal link of events, that could help you explain how a sensation, or movement, or decision occurs.”

As a step toward that type of study, the researchers now plan to extend this approach into living animals. They are also working on improving their targeting molecules and developing high-current opsins that can silence neuron activity.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, France’s National Research Agency, the Simons Foundation for the Social Brain, the Human Frontiers Science Program, John Doerr, the Open Philanthropy Project, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

* Traditional holography is based on reproducing, with light, the shape of a specific object, in the absence of that original object. This is achieved by creating an “interferogram” that contains the information needed to reconstruct an object that was previously illuminated by a reference beam. In computer-generated holography, the interferogram is calculated by a computer without the need of any original object. Combined with two-photon excitation, CGH can be used to refocus laser light to precisely illuminate a cell or a defined group of cells in the brain.


Abstract of Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics

Optogenetic control of individual neurons with high temporal precision within intact mammalian brain circuitry would enable powerful explorations of how neural circuits operate. Two-photon computer-generated holography enables precise sculpting of light and could in principle enable simultaneous illumination of many neurons in a network, with the requisite temporal precision to simulate accurate neural codes. We designed a high-efficacy soma-targeted opsin, finding that fusing the N-terminal 150 residues of kainate receptor subunit 2 (KA2) to the recently discovered high-photocurrent channelrhodopsin CoChR restricted expression of this opsin primarily to the cell body of mammalian cortical neurons. In combination with two-photon holographic stimulation, we found that this somatic CoChR (soCoChR) enabled photostimulation of individual cells in mouse cortical brain slices with single-cell resolution and <1-ms temporal precision. We used soCoChR to perform connectivity mapping on intact cortical circuits.

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    Artificial emotional intelligence

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AI Can Help Apple Watch Predict High Blood Pressure, Sleep Apnea

A new study finds that the heart-rate sensor in an Apple Watch can suggest health problems, adding to its allure.

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